The challenge of 2019

One turn around every 50 years

Finally, YOUR NIGHT arrived! Your observation, your data, your hypothesis, your conclusions ... and your opportunity to become a hunter. It is time to put into practice everything that Daniel, Alba, Quim and Leyre have taught you. Luck!

What are you facing?

This is the binary system PSR J2032 + 4127 / MT91 21 formed by a pulsar and a star Be:

Image Credit: NASA

The pulsar was discovered in 2009 with Fermi, but already in 2002 HESS observed gamma-ray emission from that position. At that time there was no known emission from that point on any other wavelength and the source was called: TeV J2032 + 4130. It was not until 2015 that it was discovered that the pulsar was part of a binary system that has a period of 50 years and it happens that in November of 2017 the periastro was produced, the moment of those 50 years in which the two objects of the binary system are closer.

How to solve it?

We have data from TeV J2032 + 4130 that we have taken for several years. For each event, we have Energy, Hadroness, Square Theta, position in the camera with respect to the position of the pulsar, the time in which the gamma ray arrived (the day according to the Convention of Julian Reduced, second and more) and to which phase of the pulsar of the Crab corresponds this time. With this data you can:

  • See if TeV J2032 + 4130 emits gamma rays
  • Search if there is any other source in the field of vision
  • Study if the amount of gamma rays that reach us from TeV 2032 changes over time
  • See if there is something different in November 2017
  • See if the pulsar also emits gamma rays

If you have already gone through the other 4 nights, our hunters will have explained how to do it. Now is the time when you are also a Gamma Ray Hunter. If you have any questions or do not remember how to do something, you can always revisit Daniel, Alba, Quim and Leyre on their nights or ask them on the comments page on the right.

And, of course, if you want to do more with the data, the notebook on the right is all yours to try whatever you want. But do not forget to explain what you do in some way (a presentation, a code, a video while using the web application, …) and send it to us if you want to participate in the draw to spend a real night in the MAGIC telescopes !



Your scientific notebook

Finally the moment arrived … now the notebook is all yours.

We have only put the instruction that is needed so that the graphics you make can be seen (% matplotlib inline) and the instruction to read the data files since guessing where the data is is not the work of a gammas hunter scientist but of magicians!

The rest is up to you. That’s right, do not hesitate to ask anything …

Good luck and, above all, enjoy!

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as pl
%matplotlib inline
TeV_OFF= pd.read_csv('EvtList_OFF_TeV2032.txt', sep=' ')
TeV_ON= pd.read_csv('.EvtList_ON_TeV2032.txt', sep=' ')

Enter and start your investigation!

Dictionary of the gamma ray hunter

Active Galactic Nuclei

The party is inside

This type of galaxies (known as AGN) have a compact central core that generates much more radiation than usual. It is believed that this emission is due to the accretion of matter in a supermassive black hole located at its center. They are the most luminous persistent sources known in the Universe.

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Black Hole

We love everything unknown and the secrets that a black hole keeps are many

It is a supermassive astronomical object that shows huge gravitational effects so that nothing (neither particles nor electromagnetic radiation) can overcome its event horizon. That is, nothing can escape from within.


No, it is not a 'blazer', we are no shopping

It is a particular type of active galactic nucleus, with the characteristic that its jet points directly at the Earth. In one sentence, it is a very compact energy source associated with a black hole in the center of a galaxy that is pointing us.

Cherenkov Radiation

This phenomenon with a name that looks like a James Bond enemy is our maximum object of study

Electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium. When a very energetic gamma photon or cosmic ray interacts with the Earth’s atmosphere, they produce a cascade of particles travelling at high speed. The Cherenkov radiation of these charged particles is used to determine the origin and intensity of cosmic rays or gammas.

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Cherenkov Telescopes

Our favorite toys

They are high energy gamma photon detectors located on the Earth’s surface. They have a mirror to collect the light and focus it towards the camera. They detect light produced by the Cherenkov effect from the blue to the ultraviolet of the electromagnetic spectrum. The images taken by the camera allow us to identify if the incident particle in the atmosphere is a gamma ray and at the same time determine the direction and its energy. The MAGIC telescopes at Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma) are an example.

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Cosmic Rays

One must know how to choose between rays, particles and sparks!

Cosmic rays are high energy radiation composed mainly of very energetic protons and atomic nuclei. They travel almost at the speed of light and when they hit the Earth’s atmosphere they produce cascades of particles: these particles generate Cherenkov radiation and some can even reach the surface of the Earth. But when the cosmic rays reach the Earth, it is impossible to know their origin since their trajectory has changed because they have travelled through magnetic fields that changed their initial direction.

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Dark Matter

And what will it be?

How to define something that is not known? We know of its existence because we detect it indirectly thanks to the gravitational effects it causes in visible matter, but we can not study it directly. This is because it does not interact with the electromagnetic force so we do not know what it is composed of. And we are talking about something that represents 25% of everything known! So it’s better not to despise it and try to unravel what is …

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Duality Particle Wave

But what is it?

It is a quantum phenomenon by which in certain occasions the particles acquire characteristic of a wave. And the other way round. What we would expect to always behave like a wave (for example light) sometimes does it as a particle. This concept was introduced by Louis-Victor de Broglie and has been experimentally demonstrated.

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These really are the events of the year

When we talk about events in this field, we refer to each of the detections we make in telescopes. For each of them we have certain information such as the position in the sky, the intensity, etc. That allows us to classify them. We are interested in having many events so that we can do statistics a posteriori and draw conclusions.

Gamma Ray

Yes we can!

Extreme frequency electromagnetic ionizing radiation (above 10 exahertz). It is the most energetic range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The direction with which they arrive at the Earth indicates the direction from where they originated.

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Lorentz Covariance

The privileges of certain equations ...

Certain physical equations have this characteristic by which they do not change shape when certain changes of coordinates are given. The Special Theory of Relativity requires that the Laws of Physics must take the same form in any inertial reference system. That is, if we have two observers whose coordinates can be related by a Lorentz transformation, any equation with covariant magnitudes will be written equal for both.

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Below you will learn what a quasar is ... well the same in little one!

It is a binary star system that produces high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Its characteristics are similar to those of quasars, but on a smaller scale. Microquasars produce strong and variable radio emissions often in the form of jet and have an accretion disk surrounding a compact object (black hole or neutron star) that is very bright in the range of X-rays.

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What shape do the clouds have?

Nebulae are regions of the interstellar medium composed basically of gases and some chemical elements in the form of cosmic dust. In them are born many of the stars by condensation and aggregation of matter. Sometimes it’s just the remains of extinct stars.

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Particle Shower

Niagara Falls of particles!

Rain of particles resulting from the interaction between high energy particles with a dense medium, for example, the Earth’s atmosphere. Each of these secondary particles produced in turn creates a cascade of its own, so that they end up producing a large number of low-energy particles.


Now you see me, now you do not see me

The word ‘pulsar’ comes from the shortening of pulsating star and it is precisely this: a star from which we get a signal in a discontinuous way. Stated more formally, it is a neutron star that emits electromagnetic radiation while it is spinning. The emissions are due to the strong magnetic field they have and the pulse is related to the rotation period of the object and the orientation relative to the Earth. One of the best known and studied is the pulsar of the Crab Nebula, very beautiful, by the way.

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Quantum Gravity

This sounds getting worse ...

This field of physics aims to unite the quantum field theory, which applies the principles of quantum mechanics to classical systems of continuous fields, with general relativity. We want to define a unified mathematical basis with which all the forces of nature can be described, the Unified Field Theory.

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'Quasi' we confuse them with stars

They are the farthest and most energetic members of a class of objects called active core galaxies. Its name comes from ‘quasi-stellar’, almost stars, since, when they were discovered, using optical instruments, it was very difficult to distinguish them from the stars. However, its emission spectrum was clearly unique. They have usually been formed by the collision of galaxies whose central black holes have merged to form a supermassive black hole or a binary system of black holes.

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Supernova Remnant

A large cloud of candies in the cosmos

When a star explodes (supernova) a nebula structure is created around it formed by the material ejected from the explosion along with interstellar material.

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Theory of relativity

In this life, everything is relative, ... or not!

Albert Einstein was the genius who decided to turn Newtonian mechanics to make it compatible with electromagnetism with his Theories of Special and General Relativity. The first is applicable to the movement of bodies in the absence of gravitational forces and in the second, Newtonian gravity is replaced with more complex formulas, although for weak fields and small velocities it coincides numerically with classical theory.

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